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Grove - Hall Sensor
The Hall sensor uses the Hall Effect, which is the production of a voltage difference across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the conductor and a magnetic field perpendicular to the current.
There is a continuous-time switch on this Grove module. The output from the module switches from low (turns on) when a magnetic field (south polarity) is perpendicular to the Hall sensor and when it passes the operate point threshold BOP it switches to high (turns off) when the magnetic field disappears.
The twig can for example be used to measure RPM of a wheel or a motor.